性,进化,红色皇后效应

2 04 2010
If environmental interactions include other rapidly evolving species,
then the pressure to change may never stop, and the evolutionary
optimum will always remain some steps ahead. Host-parasite interactions
are a famous example of this sort of situation. Here, the host immune
system evolves to recognize a special structure on the parasite and
allow its removal. This in turn induces negative selection on the current form of the parasite while
leading to positive
selection
of variants that cannot be recognized by the host.
Furthermore, if such variant parasites exist, they will increase in frequency
and in turn induce negative selection
of the current variant of the host, which will lead to the positive selection of hosts that can again recognize the
parasite, and so on. Negative (and positive) selection in such a system never rests, which is why one
hypothesis describing these systems was named after the Red Queen in the
book Alice in Wonderland, who famously stated that it takes a
great amount of running to stay in the same place. [Loewe, L. (2008) Negative selection. Nature Education 1(1).  http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/Negative-Selection-1136%5D

// 我怎么不记得Alice in Wonderland中有这段?真想再看一遍

// 由此geek到一本想看的书:《红色皇后:性与人性的演化》(The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature )。书摘中有一句话很有意思:“依数学模式而言,必须获得特奖,彩券模式才有意义:同理,必须多少有一些扩散者获得生存,而且表现良好,性才能获得报酬,否则性只是白费力气。”  嗯,获得生存,表现良好!

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